President Barack Obama's victory relied largely on two dramatically different religious coalitions -- minority Christians and those with no religion -- according to a survey released Thursday.
"This presidential election is the last in which a white Christian strategy will be considered a plausible path to victory," said Robert P. Jones, CEO of the Public Religion Research Institute, which conducted the survey. "The American religious and ethnic landscape is becoming increasingly diverse, and any campaigns relying on outdated maps are destined to lose their way."
One-in-four Obama voters were religiously unaffiliated, the second-largest "religious" demographic in the president's coalition, according to the study (PDF). Minority Christians -- consisting of black, Asian, Hispanic and mixed-race Americans -- made up 31% of Obama's coalition, the largest religious group.
Among major religious demographics, Obama struggled most with white Christians, including Catholics, mainline Protestants and evangelical Protestants. When these three groups were added up, they accounted for just 35% of Obama's religious coalition. In comparison, Republican challenger Mitt Romney's coalition was overwhelmingly white and Christian, with 79% of Romney voters identifying as such.
The rise of the religiously unaffiliated has been a major recent trend. A survey by Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life released this year found that the fastest-growing "religious" group in America is made up of people with no religion at all. According to the survey, 20% of adult Americans have no religious affiliation.
At an event announcing the Pew results, senior research adviser John Green said the growing political power of the unaffiliated within the Democratic Party could become similar to the power the religious right acquired in the GOP in the 1980s.
The 2012 election results have some political experts questioning whether the religious right's influence is fading.
The Rev. Albert Mohler Jr., president of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, tweeted after the election that the results show "we are witnessing a fundamental moral realignment of the country."
Conservative evangelist Franklin Graham, CEO of Samaritan's Purse and son of the Rev. Billy Graham, told CNN that while he doesn't believe the movement is fading, "there is a lot of work we need to do."
"I just think there are a lot of conservative Christians who did not vote for whatever reason," Franklin Graham said.
Like Graham, Jones said the legalization of same-sex marriage by ballot initiative in three states last week shows that America is changing.
"For the first time tonight, same-sex marriage has been passed by popular vote in Maine and Maryland," Jones said last week. "The historic nature of these results are hard to overstate. Given the strong support of younger Americans for same-sex marriage, it is unlikely this issue will reappear as a major national wedge issue."
The results of the Public Religion Research Institute survey were based on 1,410 telephone interviews in both Spanish and English conducted between November 7 and Sunday. The poll's margin of error is plus or minus 3.3 percentage points.
-- CNN's Dan Gilgoff contributed to this report.